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Vaccines should be administered during pregnancy; know which immunizers are — CMIO(Brazil)

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In addition to the tests performed during prenatal care, there are also several vaccines that must be received by the woman. These measures aim to strengthen the pregnant woman’s immune system and protect the baby’s health. With immunization, the woman’s antibodies are transferred to the child through the placenta and, after birth, through breastfeeding.

The Pregnancy Book, available in the Unified Health System (SUS), provides information on vaccination during pregnancy, rapid tests and exams to detect changes, necessary care, guidance on childbirth, pregnant women’s rights, tips, prenatal care of the father/partner, among other important references.

Among the vaccines indicated for pregnant women and available in the SUS are:

Adult dual vaccine (dT)

Protects pregnant woman and baby against tetanus and diphtheria.

. Previously unvaccinated pregnant women: administer 3 (three) doses of vaccine containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoid with an interval of 60 days between doses. Being 2 (two) doses of dT at any time of pregnancy and 1 (one) dose of dTpa, from the twentieth week of pregnancy;

. Pregnant woman vaccinated with 1 (one) dose of dT: administer 1 (one) dose of dT at any time of pregnancy and 1 (one) dose of dTpa from the twentieth week of pregnancy with an interval of 60 days between doses, minimum of 30 days;

. Pregnant woman vaccinated with 2 (two) doses of dT: administer 1 (one) dose of dTpa from the twentieth week of pregnancy;

. Pregnant woman vaccinated with 3 (three) doses of dT: administer 1 (one) dose of dTpa from the twentieth week of pregnancy.

Even with a complete regimen (three doses of dT or dTpa) and/or booster with dT or dTpa, the pregnant woman should always receive 1 (one) dose of dTpa at each pregnancy. Neonatal tetanus has a high fatality rate due to contamination of the umbilical cord during delivery. Diphtheria can cause respiratory obstruction, with a high mortality rate among newborns.

dTpa vaccine

The adult-type acellular bacterial triplex (diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough) is recommended in all pregnancies, because in addition to protecting the pregnant woman and preventing her from transmitting Bordetella pertussis (pertussis) to the newborn, it allows the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, protecting it in the first months of life, until it can be immunized with the penta vaccine.

The dTpa vaccine should be applied from the twentieth week of pregnancy and at each pregnancy. For those who missed the opportunity to be vaccinated during pregnancy, it is important to administer a dose of dTpa in the puerperium, as early as possible.

Hepatitis B vaccine

For pregnant women at any gestational age, it is important to administer 3 doses (0, 1, and 6 months) of hepatitis B vaccine, considering previous vaccination history. If it is not possible to complete the vaccination schedule during pregnancy, the woman should complete it after delivery, in due course.

If interruption has occurred after the first dose, the second dose should be administered as soon as possible and the third dose should be scheduled for 6 months after the first, keeping an interval of at least 8 weeks between the second and third dose.

The final dose of the vaccination schedule must be administered at least 8 weeks after the second dose and at least 16 weeks after the first dose for the schedule to be considered valid. The minimum interval between the first and second dose should be 4 weeks.

Hepatitis B is a disease caused by a virus that can be transmitted from the woman to the baby during pregnancy, at the time of delivery or even during breastfeeding, if small amounts of blood are ingested by the child, in cases of fissures in the mother’s nipples. Throughout pregnancy, this infection increases the risk of premature birth.

Important: Hepatitis B is not a contraindication for breastfeeding. In case of nipple fissures, it is recommended to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast until the lesions improve. The woman can offer the other breast and manually extract the affected breast to maintain milk production.

Influenza vaccine (flu)

It is recommended to administer the flu vaccine at any gestational age to all pregnant women and women (up to 42 days postpartum) during the annual vaccination campaign.

Pregnant women are at risk for complications from influenza virus infection. The vaccine is recommended in the months of seasonality of the virus, even in the first trimester of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the chances of severe symptoms and complications are higher, resulting in a high rate of hospitalization.

Covid-19 vaccine

Protects women against the virus that causes Covid-19. The application of this vaccine is recommended at any gestational age for all pregnant women and women in the puerperium (up to 42 days after delivery).

All vaccines mentioned are available free of charge at Basic Health Units.

Fran Martins
Ministry of Health

Official content – Fact Check – Verified

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