Brazilian Natural Medicine

the greater the chances of successful treatment when the diagnosis is early — CMIO(Brazil)

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Thrombosis is a potentially serious disease caused by the formation of blood clots (thrombus) within deep vessels, with partial or complete obstruction of blood flow. Most of the time, as in the case of venous thrombosis, it affects the lower limbs, such as legs, thighs and calves and occasionally the upper limbs, causing swelling and pain in the affected region.

This Friday (16), National Day to Combat and Prevent Thrombosis, the Ministry of Health reinforces the population’s awareness of the disease, to reduce the number of undiagnosed cases, increase measures for prevention and early diagnosis, in addition to supporting states and municipalities in actions aimed at treating and assisting occurrences. The faster the diagnosis, the greater the chances of successful treatment.

Although it can occur spontaneously, thrombosis can also be associated with some previous circumstance, such as the post-surgical period, trauma, immobilization, use of hormones (especially female hormones containing estrogens), pregnancy and postpartum. Infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, cardiac, pulmonary diseases and especially cancer are among the various diseases associated with venous thrombosis, as well as other risk factors related to obesity, family history, hospitalization, venous catheters, among others.

Although advanced age is associated with a relatively increased risk of thrombosis, the problem can affect any age group in men and women. Patients with hereditary and acquired thrombophilia are more predisposed to having thrombosis. If the diagnosis is incorrect or late, it can lead to serious consequences, such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary thromboembolism.


The most common symptoms of venous thrombosis are pain, swelling and redness of the affected limb. In the case of pulmonary thromboembolism, there may be shortness of breath and chest pain when breathing, usually suddenly. Muscle stiffness may also occur in the region where the thrombus formed.

diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of venous thromboses is usually made by Doppler ultrasound of the affected limb. It is a quick and non-invasive test. In the case of pulmonary thromboembolism, CT angiography of the chest is necessary.

Treatment is with anticoagulant substances, that is, those that prevent the formation of the thrombus and the progression of thrombosis, or with fibrinolytic substances (destroy the thrombus). The Unified Health System (SUS) offers comprehensive and free treatment for all cases of thrombosis and embolism.

Relationship between thrombosis and Covid-19

Venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism are frequent sequelae caused by Covid-19. Hospitalized Covid-19 patients should receive thrombosis prophylaxis with anticoagulants and closely monitored.

how to prevent

Taking good care of your health is essential. Avoid carrying excess weight, practice frequent physical activities, be careful in the use of hormones (especially female hormones), use elastic stockings on long trips and, when indicated, prophylaxis with anticoagulants after surgeries and hospitalizations are the most important measures in the prevention of venous thromboses.

Gustavo Frasão
Ministry of Health

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