Exactly 32 years ago, celebrated this Monday (19), universal and egalitarian public health for all Brazilians became a reality with the institution of the Unified Health System (SUS). What used to be a service for a few and of federal responsibility, became decentralized and shared management between the Union, states and municipalities.
“Brazil has one of the largest universal access health systems in the world. For 3 decades, SUS has given all the necessary support to those who need help, free of charge, through Psychosocial Care Centers, Health Units, 24-hour UPAs, SAMU 192 and hospitals”, highlights the Minister of Health, Marcelo Queiroga.
The Federal Constitution of 1988 established health as a right for all and a duty of the State. Two years later, in 1990, Law No. 8080 regulated the Public Health System throughout the national territory. SUS is not simply a medical-hospital service. It also promotes services such as prevention, vaccination and disease control, in addition to acting in pharmaceutical assistance, education, promotion and health management.
For everyone to have guaranteed assistance, the SUS is based on three principles. Universalization: in which health is a right of citizenship for all people and a duty of the State. Then equity. The purpose of this principle is to reduce inequalities and ensure that everyone has access to the same services. Thirdly, there is comprehensiveness, a principle that considers people as a whole, meeting all their needs.
Composition of SUS
Federal health management is carried out through the Ministry of Health. The federal government is the main funder of the public health network. The Ministry of Health formulates national health policies that are agreed and executed in partnership with states and municipalities. The Federal Government also has the function of planning, elaborating norms, evaluating and using instruments for the control of the SUS.
• States and Federal District:
The states have specific secretariats for health management. The state manager must also apply his own resources, including in the municipalities, and the investments transferred by the Union. He coordinates and plans the SUS at the state level, respecting federal regulations. State managers are responsible for organizing health care in their territory.
They are responsible for implementing health actions and services within their territory. The municipal manager must apply his own resources and those transferred by the Union and the state. The municipality formulates its own health policies and is also one of the partners for the application of national and state health policies. He coordinates and plans the SUS at the municipal level, respecting federal regulations.
Pandemic and SUS legacy
Faced with the greatest health emergency in world history, the Covid-19 pandemic, the SUS underwent a major restructuring and epidemiological surveillance was strengthened. Brazil started to produce immunizations with national Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (IFA), which guaranteed the process of technological incorporation, granting self-sufficiency in national production.
Ministry of Health
Official content – Fact Check – Verified