Uterine myoma, also called fibroma or uterine leiomyoma, can cause several symptoms such as abdominal cramps and bleeding outside the menstrual period, however, in some cases, the presence of the myoma does not cause symptoms, being discovered only during routine gynecological exams.
As it is a benign tumor, myoma does not usually pose dangers to women’s health, and its symptoms can be controlled with medication, which must be recommended by the gynecologist, or in some cases, surgery may be necessary for its removal. Find out what causes fibroids and what treatment can be.
Fibroids, regardless of the affected region, can cause general symptoms such as:
- Increased blood flow and duration of menstrual period;
- Bleeding outside the menstrual period;
- Abdominal pain and cramping in the uterus region;
- Feeling of pressure in the belly;
- Increased urge to urinate or urinary incontinence;
- Pain during intercourse;
- Difficulty getting pregnant.
In the case of pregnant women, the symptoms of myoma are the same, but they can become more intense during pregnancy, and it is important to rest so as not to put the baby’s health at risk. See other symptoms caused by changes in the uterus.
Symptoms of uterine fibroids can also vary depending on the type of fibroid, for example:
- Subserous Fibroids: are those that are on the outside of the uterus and, therefore, can grow more and push the organs around, causing increased urge to urinate, diarrhea or constipation. When they hang out of the uterus, they are called pedunculated fibroids;
- Intramural fibroids: they are located inside the wall that forms the uterus and, in this way, can cause more abdominal pain, cramps and pain during sexual intercourse;
- Submucous fibroids: are located inside the uterus, and cause bleeding and difficulty getting pregnant.
In addition, if the woman has many fibroids or if they are large, the symptoms may be more intense. Learn more about the types of uterine fibroids.
How to confirm the diagnosis
The diagnosis of uterine fibroids is based on symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding or out of period, constipation, cramps or also anemia due to heavy menstrual bleeding. In addition, the gynecological touch exam allows the doctor to observe the female genitals and palpate the abdomen, to feel the contour of the uterus. If the woman has symptoms or changes during the clinical examination, the gynecologist may recommend performing an abdominal or transvaginal ultrasound. See more about transvaginal ultrasound.
In some cases, the doctor may order more specific tests, such as hysteroscopy, hysterosonography and hysterosalpingography, for example, which are useful to evaluate the uterine cavity.
How is the treatment done?
Treatment for fibroids is done in women who have symptoms, and the use of hormonal drugs, such as the contraceptive pill or intrauterine IUD (Mirena), for example, with the aim of reducing the size of the fibroid and thus relieving the symptoms.
In addition, the doctor may indicate the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, for example, to relieve symptoms that bother the woman, such as colic.
In some cases, especially when the fibroid is very large and the symptoms are more intense, surgery to remove the fibroid may be recommended. Learn more about how surgery is performed to remove fibroids.
when to go to the doctor
The ideal is to have gynecological exams at least once a year. However, if you experience symptoms of increased menstrual flow, frequent cramps or menstrual bleeding outside the period, pain during intercourse or urgency to urinate, you should seek follow-up with the gynecologist for the most appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
In case of severe vaginal bleeding or severe cramping that appears suddenly, seek medical help immediately or go to the hospital or emergency room.
Always consult a doctor.
Verified by RJ985 – Brazilian natural medicine CMIO.org